Friday, March 28, 2008

The Effects and Remedial Measures of Crack Cocaine and Gambling

Cocaine - what is it?
Cocaine is an illegal drug which is used in most inner cities. This drug is widely used. Crack cocaine and powder cocaine are the two products of cocaine. The powder cocaine is regarded as the drug of middle class families and is always associated with good money. The punishments for possessing crack cocaine is severe than that for possessing powder cocaine.

Crack cocaine - What is it?
The chemical cocaine is crack. When the cocaine is chemically processed to remove the hydrochloride it cracks or snaps due to heating and smoking so it is usually called
as crack cocaine and the name of the process is called as freebasing. Crack is usually sold in small cylindrical glass and in small quantities (300-500mg). Each of these vessels can be used for 2-4 inhalations which last for 10 to 20 minutes. Its wide availability, ease of concealment and low cost has increased its use. The powder cocaine is usually mixed with sodium bicarbonate or ammonia, which can be snorted or smoked.

What does it do?
Crack disturbs the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. It increases the neurotransmitter’s level which creates a heightened sense of pleasure, euphoria and increased energy.

The Human Brain and Addiction
The brain is one of the most vital organs of our body. It is the center of command. For a normal human the brain weighs about 1400gms. The brain has different centers which are designated for different purposes. Lobes which are present in the brain process the information that is sent by the sense organs for instance the occipital lobes receives information from our eyes. The thinking center is called the cerebral cortex which is at the top of the whole brain. Here all the information like language, math and strategies are processed. It is also responsible for survival, memory and things like appetite and thirst. The brain stem at the base controls the heartbeat rate, breathing, sleeping and it also does things which we can’t even think of.

How does our brain communicate?
The brain communicates through special cells called neurons. These brain cells send and receive messages. The messages are in the form of an electric impulse and it travels along the axon of the neuron. A chemical compound called neurotransmitter is released at the end of the axon and then it travels to the other neurons. Then the messages are processed and the chemical is released back, reabsorbed to the sending neurons. Our brain releases different kinds of neurotransmitter depending upon the kind of work we do.

How does drug influence our brain?
The drugs we use have similar shape and size as that of the natural neurotransmitters. These drugs inside our brain cause to start an unnatural chain reaction of electrical charges, which causes the neurons to release neurotransmitter of their own kind. Some drugs act like a pump which causes to release more neurotransmitter, which creates feelings of high pleasure.
What are the side effects and remedial measures?

The side effects of crack cocaine are deadly. Some of them are increased blood pressure, increased heart rates, increased anxiety and hyperactivity, nausea sensation and vomiting, decrease in appetite and easily vulnerable to heart attacks and strokes. When the person uses overdoses for a long period of time, the blood will have certain amount of poisonous toxics forever. Because of crack being rapidly absorbed by the blood, it induces the user to consume more. Moreover consuming this drug causes the user to be depressed and it also induces to consume more which may lead to mental instability. Crack cocaine is usually combined with a number of impurities which always makes the presence of side effects and toxicity. It’s very difficult to improve health without medical treatment. Many of the individuals who use crack cocaine experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop using it because of the addictive nature of the drug. Feelings like intense cravings, irritability, hunger and anxiety prevent the persons from stopping from using crack.

Gambling Addiction
Does genetic component have influence on gambling addiction?
There are no genetic, physical or psychological influences found for becoming an addict. It is proved from the research that no chromosomal defect has satisfactorily linked to gambling and does not run in families.

What is the treatment for gambling addiction?
There is no certain cure for gambling addiction. It may take years to get rid of gambling. The individual must attend counseling. Alcohol and smoking must be strictly prohibited. They should be treated with drug therapy. Moreover pure determination and strong desire of the individual himself to stop his activities can be the only cure.

A major lifestyle change is required to prevent the worst behavior to re occur.
What are the addiction treatments available for crack cocaine?
The crack cocaine is a powerful addictive drug and even with a short time usage the individuals become so addictive that they start to experience withdrawal symptoms like depression and irritability when they stop using it. The individuals are unable to improve their health without medical help. The person must undergo counseling for a long time to come out of addiction.